RAMSES brought together various scientific disciplines contributing to the knowledge on costs of climate adaptation in cities: adaptation, mitigation, climate change impacts, economics, architecture, infrastructure, urban and spatial planning, climate modelling, policy and governance, risks, resilience and vulnerability, health, and communication.

In order to do so, the RAMSES research applied the following concept:


Urban characteristics and their inter-linkages were identified and used to provide the local context for the assessment. From the top-down, drivers such as climate change and mitigation were used to quantify risks, vulnerabilities, costs and the benefits of adaptation which can be used to support the design of transition strategies in urban areas (source: own elaboration, skyline image from Photoshop Graphics 2012)

You can find more information about the single research activities here.

Overall the RAMSES project partners published 38 journal articles (with an additional 10 in press or under review) as well as conference papers, PhD theses, book chapters, etc. You can find a complete list below.

Scientific publications RAMSES
Status: February 2018
Peer-reviewed publications

Prahl, B. F., Boettle, M., Costa, L., Kropp, J. P., & Rybski, D. (in press). Damage and protection cost curves for coastal floods within the largest 600 European cities. Scientific Data.

Vemury, C. M., Heidrich, O., Thorpe, N., & Crosbie, T. (2018). A holistic approach to delivering sustainable design education in civil engineering. International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education, 19(1), 197-216.


Gudipudi, R., Lüdeke, M. K., Rybski, D., & Kropp, J. P. (2017). Benchmarking urban eco-efficiency and urbanites' perception. Cities. Online first.

Guerreiro, S. B., Glenis, V., Dawson, R. J., & Kilsby, C. (2017). Pluvial Flooding in European Cities—A Continental Approach to Urban Flood Modelling. Water, 9(4), 296.

Heidrich, O., Hill, G. A., Neaimeh, M., Huebner, Y., Blythe, P. T., & Dawson, R. J. (2017), How do cities support electric vehicles and what difference does it make?. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 123, 17-23.

Heidrich, O., Kamara, J., Maltese, S., Re Cecconi, F., & Dejaco, M. C. (2017). A critical review of the developments in building adaptability. International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, 35(4), 284-303.

Hooyberghs, H., Verbeke, S., Lauwaet, D., Costa, H., Floater, G., & De Ridder, K. (2017). Influence of climate change on summer cooling costs and heat stress in urban office buildings. Climatic Change, 144(4), 721-735.

Lenk, S., Rybski, D., Heidrich, O., Dawson, R. J., & Kropp, J. P. (2017). Costs of sea dikes–regressions and uncertainty estimates. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 17(5), 765.

Pregnolato, M., Ford, A., Glenis, V., Wilkinson, S., & Dawson, R. (2017). Impact of Climate Change on Disruption to Urban Transport Networks from Pluvial Flooding. Journal of Infrastructure Systems, 23(4), 04017015.

Pregnolato, M., Ford, A., Wilkinson, S. M., & Dawson, R. J. (2017). The impact of flooding on road transport: A depth-disruption function. Transportation research part D: transport and environment, 55, 67-81.

Rybski, D., Prahl, B. F., & Kropp, J. P. (2017). Comment on ‘High-income does not protect against hurricane losses’. Environmental Research Letters, 12(9), 098001.

Rybski, D., Reusser, D. E., Winz, A. L., Fichtner, C., Sterzel, T., & Kropp, J. P. (2017). Cities as nuclei of sustainability?. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science, 44(3), 425-440.

Tapia, C., Abajo, B., Feliu, E., Mendizabal, M., Martinez, J. A., Fernández, J. G., Laburu, T., & Lejarazu, A. (2017). Profiling urban vulnerabilities to climate change: An indicator-based vulnerability assessment for European cities. Ecological Indicators, 78, 142-155.

Schütte, S., Depoux, A., Vigil, S., Kowalski, C., Gemenne, F., & Flahault, A. (2017). The influence of health concerns in scientific and policy debates on climate change. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 71(8), 747-749.

Walker, R. V., Beck, M. B., Hall, J. W., Dawson, R. J., & Heidrich, O. (2017). Identifying key technology and policy strategies for sustainable cities: A case study of London. Environmental Development, 21, 1-18.              

Zhou, B., Rybski, D., & Kropp, J. P. (2017). The role of city size and urban form in the surface urban heat island. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 4791.


Boettle, M., Rybski, D., & Kropp, J. P. (2016). Quantifying the effect of sea level rise and flood defence–a point process perspective on coastal flood damage. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 16(2), 559.

De Ridder, K., Maiheu, B., Lauwaet, D., Daglis, I. A., Keramitsoglou, I., Kourtidis, K., Manunta, P. & Paganini, M. (2016). Urban heat island intensification during hot spells—The case of Paris during the summer of 2003. Urban Science, 1(1), 3.

Fluschnik, T., Kriewald, S., García Cantú Ros, A., Zhou, B., Reusser, D. E., Kropp, J. P., & Rybski, D. (2016). The size distribution, scaling properties and spatial organization of urban clusters: a global and regional percolation perspective. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 5(7), 110.

García-Díez, M., Lauwaet, D., Hooyberghs, H., Ballester, J., De Ridder, K., & Rodó, X. (2016). Advantages of using a fast urban boundary layer model as compared to a full mesoscale model to simulate the urban heat island of Barcelona. Geoscientific Model Development, 9(12), 4439.

Gudipudi, R., Fluschnik, T., Ros, A. G. C., Walther, C., & Kropp, J. P. (2016). City density and CO2 efficiency. Energy Policy, 91, 352-361. DOI:

Heidrich, O., Reckien, D., Olazabal, M., Foley, A., Salvia, M., de Gregorio Hurtado, S., Orru, H., Flacke, J., Geneletti, D., Pietrapertosa, F. & Hamann, J. P. (2016). National climate policies across Europe and their impacts on cities strategies. Journal of environmental management, 168, 36-45.
Lauwaet, D., De Ridder, K., Saeed, S., Brisson, E., Chatterjee, F., van Lipzig, N. P., Mahieu, B. & Hooyberghs, H. (2016). Assessing the current and future urban heat island of Brussels. Urban Climate, 15, 1-15.

Magnan, A. K., Schipper, E. L. F., Burkett, M., Bharwani, S., Burton, I., Eriksen, S., Gemenne, F., Schaar, J., & Ziervogel, G. (2016). Addressing the risk of maladaptation to climate change. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 7(5), 646-665. doi: 10.1002/wcc.409

Martinez, G. S., Baccini, M., De Ridder, K., Hooyberghs, H., Lefebvre, W., Kendrovski, V., Scott, K. & Spasenovska, M. (2016). Projected heat-related mortality under climate change in the metropolitan area of Skopje. BMC public health, 16(1), 407.

Prahl, B. F., & Kropp, J. P. (2016). Damage functions for climate-related hazards: unification and uncertainty analysis. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 16(5), 1189.

Pregnolato, M., Ford, A., Robson, C., Glenis, V., Barr, S., & Dawson, R. (2016). Assessing urban strategies for reducing the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks. Royal Society open science, 3(5), 160023.

Sandberg, N. H., Sartori, I., Heidrich, O., Dawson, R., Dascalaki, E., Dimitriou, S., Vimm-r, T., Filippidou, F., Stegnar, G., Zavrl, M.Š. & Brattebø, H. (2016). Dynamic building stock modelling: Application to 11 European countries to support the energy efficiency and retrofit ambitions of the EU. Energy and Buildings, 132, 26-38.

Tiwary, A., Williams, I. D., Heidrich, O., Namdeo, A., Bandaru, V., & Calfapietra, C. (2016). Development of multi-functional streetscape green infrastructure using a performance index approach. Environmental Pollution, 208, 209-220.

Zhou, B., Lauwaet, D., Hooyberghs, H., De Ridder,     K.,Kropp, J.P., Rybski, D. (2016). Assessing seasonality in the surface urban heat island of London. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 55(3), 493-505.


Acero, J. A., & Herranz-Pascual, K. (2015). A comparison of thermal comfort conditions in four urban spaces by means of measurements and modelling techniques. Building and Environment, 93, 245-257.

De Ridder, K., Lauwaet, D., & Maiheu, B. (2015). UrbClim–A fast urban boundary layer climate model. Urban Climate, 12, 21-48.

Kourtidis, K., Georgoulias, A. K., Rapsomanikis, S., Amiridis, V., Keramitsoglou, I., Hooyberghs, H., Mahieu, B., & Melas, D. (2015). A study of the hourly variability of the urban heat island effect in the Greater Athens Area during summer. Science of The Total Environment, 517, 162-177.

Lauwaet, D., Hooyberghs, H., Maiheu, B., Lefebvre, W., Driesen, G., Van Looy, S., & De Ridder, K. (2015). Detailed Urban Heat Island projections for cities worldwide: dynamical downscaling CMIP5 global climate models. Climate, 3(2), 391-415.

Lobaccaro, G., & Acero, J. A. (2015). Comparative analysis of green actions to improve outdoor thermal comfort inside typical urban street canyons. Urban Climate, 14, 251-267.

Martinez, G. S., Williams, E., & Yu, S. S. (2015). The economics of health damage and adaptation to climate change in Europe: A review of the conventional and grey literature. Climate, 3(3), 522-541.
Olonscheck, M., Walther, C., Lüdeke, M., & Kropp, J. P. (2015). Feasibility of energy reduction targets under climate change: The case of the residential heating energy sector of the Netherlands. Energy, 90, 560-569.

Prahl, B. F., Rybski, D., Burghoff, O., & Kropp, J. P. (2015). Comparison of storm damage functions and their performance. Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 15(4), 769-788.

Wouters, H., Demuzere, M., De Ridder, K., & van Lipzig, N. P. (2015). The impact of impervious water-storage parametrization on urban climate modelling. Urban Climate, 11, 24-50.


Kallaos, J., Mainguy, G., & Wyckmans, A. (2014). Considering Resilience; Steps Towards an Assessment Framework. TeMA: Journal of Land Use, 7(1), 5-28.


Haasnoot, M., Kwakkel, J. H., Walker, W. E., & ter Maat, J. (2013). Dynamic adaptive policy pathways: A method for crafting robust decisions for a deeply uncertain world. Global environmental change, 23(2), 485-498.

Wouters, H., Ridder, K. D., Demuzere, M., Lauwaet, D., & van Lipzig, N. P. M. (2013). The diurnal evolution of the urban heat island of Paris: a model-based case study during Summer 2006. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13(17), 8525-8541.

Zhou, B., Rybski, D., & Kropp, J. P. (2013). On the statistics of urban heat island intensity. Geophysical research letters, 40(20), 5486-5491.

Paper in Proceedings of a Conference/Workshop

Heidrich, O., Villarroel Walker, R., Dawson, R., Hall, J., & M. B. Beck (2015). Assessing technology and innovation interventions in the metabolism of Greater London. ISIE conference 2015. University of Surrey.

Heidrich, O., Ford, A., Alderson, D., Dawson, R. & D. A. C. Manning (2015). UK climate change strategies in cities and the LAYERS of cobalt supplies. ISIE 2015. University of Surrey, Guildford, UK

Article/Section in an edited book or book series

Costa, H. (2016). Climate-resilient cities. In: Fankhauser, S. McDermott, T.K.J. (eds.): The Economics of Climate- Resilient Development. Edward Elgar Publishing. Cheltenham. 143-163.

Hooyberghs H., Maiheu B., De Ridder K., Lauwaet D., Lefebvre W. (2016). Assessing Climate Change in Cities Using UrbClim. In: Steyn D., Chaumerliac N. (eds): Air Pollution Modeling and its Application XXIV. Springer Proceedings in Complexity. Springer, 425-430.

Ionesco, D., Mokhnacheva, D.,Gemenne, F. (2016). The Atlas of Environmental Migration. 172.

Zhou, B. (2016): Cities as Urban clusters: An Empirical study of surface urban heat island intensity and its implication For Benchmarking UHI adaptation. In: Urban Climate News, December 2016. 23-27.

Gudipudi, R. V.: Cities and Global Sustainability: Insights from emission and ecological efficiency. 08/12/2017. University of Potsdam. Potsdam/Germany

Zhou, B.: On the Assessment of Surface Urban Heat Island: Size, Urban Form, and  Seasonality. 05/10/2017. University of Potsdam. Potsdam/Germany

Pregnolato, M.: Risk analysis of the disruption to urban transport networks from pluvial flooding. 31/07/2017. Newcastle University. Newcastle/UK

Kallaos, J.: Energy use and associated greenhouse gas emissions – developing an indicator framework applicable to the built environment. 14/09/2016. NTNU Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Trondheim, Norway

Prahl, B. F.: On Damage Functions for the Estimation of Storm Loss and their Generalization for Climate-Related Hazards. 14/07/2016. Humboldt University of Berlin. Berlin/Germany

Böttle, M.: Coastal Floods in View of Sea Level Rise: Assessing Damage Costs and Adaptation Measures. 27/04/2016. University of Potsdam. Potsdam/Germany

University Publication

Costa, H., Floater, G., Hooyberghs, H., de Ridder, K. (2016). Climate change, heat stress and labour: a framework for assessing adaptation costs in the city economy, Grantham Research Institute WP 278, London School of Economics and Political Science

Europe The work leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme under Grant Agreement No. 308497
Project RAMSES - Reconciling Adaptation, Mitigation and Sustainable Development for Cities.